Costco Business Model: How A Budget Model Dominates

By prioritizing customer value and loyalty, the Costco business model has not only survived but thrived in the face of ever-changing market conditions. In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into the inner workings of Costco’s business model, exploring its history, ownership structure, and the key strategies that have made it a household name

Gary Fox

Costco Business Model Canvas

Costco Business Model: How A Budget Model Dominates

By prioritizing customer value and loyalty, the Costco business model has not only survived but thrived in the face of ever-changing market conditions. In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into the inner workings of Costco’s business model, exploring its history, ownership structure, and the key strategies that have made it a household name synonymous with quality, value, and customer satisfaction.

Did you know that Costco’s $1.50 hot dog and soda combo has remained at the same price since 1985? This fascinating fact is just one example of how Costco has managed to maintain its unique position in the highly competitive retail landscape.

How Does Costco’s Business Work

The Costco business model is based on a membership-based warehouse club, where customers pay an annual fee to access a wide range of products at discounted prices. The company’s business model relies on selling a limited selection of items in bulk quantities, which allows them to negotiate lower prices with suppliers and pass the savings on to their members. By focusing on a smaller range of high-quality products and leveraging their buying power, Costco can offer competitive prices while still maintaining profitability.

Key Facts About Costco

. Company name:



James Sinegal and Jeffrey H. Brotman

Launch date:

The first Costco warehouse opened on September 15, 1983

Year founded:


Company CEO:

W. Craig Jelinek


Issaquah, Washington, USA

Number of employees

316,000 (2023)

Ticker symbol


Annual revenue

$242.29 billion (2023)

Profit | Net Income

$6.292 billion (2023)

Market Cap

$317.31 billion (April 2024)

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A Brief History

Costco’s journey began in 1983 when James Sinegal and Jeffrey Brotman opened the first Costco warehouse in Seattle, Washington. The company quickly gained popularity for its unique approach to retail, which focused on offering a limited selection of high-quality products at competitive prices.

Key milestones and dates:

  • 1983: First Costco warehouse opens in Seattle, Washington
  • 1985: Costco merges with Price Club, another pioneer in the warehouse club industry
  • 1993: Costco becomes a publicly-traded company on the NASDAQ stock exchange
  • 1995: Costco opens its first international location in Canada
  • 1997: The company introduces the Kirkland Signature private label brand
  • 1999: Costco launches its e-commerce website,
  • 2003: Costco enters the United Kingdom market with the acquisition of Tradex
  • 2009: Costco expands into Australia with the opening of its first warehouse in Melbourne
  • 2012: The company opens its first location in Spain
  • 2019: Costco achieves $152.7 billion in net sales, solidifying its position as a retail giant

Who Owns Costco

Costco is a publicly-traded company, with its shares listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol “COST.” As of 2023, the company does not have a single majority shareholder. Instead, ownership is distributed among institutional investors, mutual funds, and individual shareholders. The company’s largest shareholders include The Vanguard Group, BlackRock Inc., and State Street Corporation. Costco’s executive team, led by CEO Craig Jelinek, is responsible for the day-to-day management and decision-making within the company.

Mission Statement

Costco’s mission statement is as follows: “To continually provide our members with quality goods and services at the lowest possible prices.”

How Costco Works

The Costco business model is centered around its membership-based warehouse club concept. Customers pay an annual membership fee, which grants them access to a wide range of products at discounted prices. The company offers three main types of memberships: Gold Star, Business, and Executive.

By focusing on a limited selection of high-quality products and purchasing them in bulk quantities, Costco can negotiate lower prices with suppliers and pass the savings on to their members. This approach, combined with a lean operating model and a focus on efficiency, allows Costco to maintain profitability while offering competitive prices.

Costco’s warehouses are designed to be simple and efficient, with a no-frills layout that prioritizes functionality over aesthetics. The company also employs a strategy of constantly rotating its inventory, which encourages members to visit the store frequently to discover new products and take advantage of limited-time offers.

In addition to its brick-and-mortar warehouses, Costco has expanded its presence in the digital realm through its e-commerce website, The website offers a selection of products for online purchase and delivery, as well as exclusive online-only deals for members.

The Revenue Model of Costco

Costco Revenue Model Results 2008 - 2023
Source: Statista

The Costco business model generates several revenue streams:

  • Membership fees: Costco charges an annual membership fee, which provides a stable and predictable source of income for the company.
  • Merchandise sales: The bulk of Costco’s revenue comes from the sale of a wide range of products, including groceries, electronics, appliances, clothing, and home goods.
  • Ancillary businesses: Costco also generates revenue through various ancillary businesses, such as gas stations, pharmacies, optical centers, and travel services.
  • Kirkland Signature: Costco’s private label brand, Kirkland Signature, contributes to the company’s profitability by offering high-quality products at lower prices compared to name-brand alternatives.

What is Costco’s Business?

Costco operates in the retail sector, specifically within the warehouse club market. The company differentiates itself from competitors by focusing on a membership-based model, offering a limited selection of high-quality products at discounted prices, and prioritizing customer service. Costco’s competitive advantages include its buying power, lean operating model, and loyal customer base, which allows the company to maintain profitability while offering competitive prices.

Key Features of Costco’s Business Model

  • Membership-based warehouse club model that offers exclusive access to discounted prices
  • Limited selection of high-quality products purchased in bulk quantities to secure lower prices
  • Lean operating model with a focus on efficiency and cost reduction
  • Constant rotation of inventory to encourage frequent customer visits and drive sales

The Costco Business Model Canvas

Costco Business Model Canvas

The Costco Business Model

Customer Segments Of The Costco Business Model Canvas

Customer Segments

The Costco business model customer segments include:

  • Cost-conscious consumers: Shoppers seeking the lowest prices
  • Families and households: Groups purchasing a variety of products
  • Small business owners: Entrepreneurs buying supplies and inventory
  • Low to middle-income earners: Budget-minded individuals and families
  • Senior citizens and retirees: Older adults on fixed incomes
  • Value Proposition Of The Business Model Canvas

    Value Propositions

    The Costco business model includes the following value propositions:

  • Everyday low prices: Consistently offering the most affordable options
  • Wide product assortment: Catering to diverse needs and preferences
  • Convenient shopping experience: Providing easy access and streamlined processes
  • One-stop shopping destination: Fulfilling multiple needs in a single visit
  • Reliable product quality: Ensuring dependable performance and value
  • Channels


    The Costco business model leverages a variety of channels to reach and engage with its customers. The main channels used by Costco include:

  • Brick-and-mortar stores: Physical locations for in-person shopping
  • E-commerce website and mobile app: Online platforms for remote purchasing
  • Pickup and delivery services: Convenient options for order fulfillment
  • Social media and digital advertising: Engaging customers through online platforms
  • Direct mail and print advertising: Traditional marketing methods for reach
  • Key Relationships Of The Business Model Canvas

    Customer Relationships

    The Costco business model places a strong emphasis on building and maintaining customer relationships through its membership scheme. The main aspects of Costco’s customer relationships include:

  • Self-service in-store shopping: Allowing customers to browse and purchase independently
  • Personalized online shopping recommendations: Tailoring suggestions based on customer preferences
  • Customer service and support: Providing assistance and problem resolution
  • Loyalty programs and rewards: Incentivizing repeat purchases and engagement
  • Feedback and reviews channels: Gathering customer insights and opinions
  • Key Activities Of The Business Model Canvas

    Key Activities

    The Costco business model encompasses several key activities that are essential to the company’s operations and growth. These activities maintain its competitive position in the market. The key activities for Costco include:

  • Retail operations and store management: Overseeing daily functions and customer experiences
  • Supply chain management and logistics: Coordinating the flow of goods from suppliers to stores
  • Procurement and vendor relationships: Sourcing products and negotiating terms with suppliers
  • Marketing and advertising: Promoting the Walmart brand and offerings to customers
  • E-commerce and omnichannel development: Enhancing online and integrated shopping experiences
  • Customer service and support: Assisting customers and resolving issues
  • Key Resources Of The Business Model Canvas

    Key Resources

    The Costco business model relies on several key resources to operate effectively and maintain its competitive advantage. The key resources for Costco include:

  • Extensive store network: Widespread physical presence for customer access
  • Efficient supply chain and logistics: Streamlined operations for cost reduction
  • Strong brand reputation: Widely recognized and trusted brand image
  • Skilled and diverse workforce: Knowledgeable and dedicated employees
  • Advanced technology and data analytics: Innovative tools for optimization and insights
  • Financial resources and scale: Substantial capital and economies of scale
  • Key Partners Of The Business Model Canvas

    Key Partners

    The Costco business model relies on a diverse network of key partners that play a crucial role in supporting the company’s operations, growth, and success.

  • Suppliers and manufacturers: Providers of products sold in Walmart stores
  • Logistics and transportation providers: Carriers and distributors for efficient product movement
  • Technology and software vendors: Suppliers of innovative tools and solutions
  • Financial services providers: Partners for offering financial products and services
  • Advertising and marketing agencies: Collaborators for promotional campaigns and strategies
  • Local communities and organizations: Partners for social responsibility and community engagement
  • Revenue Streams Of The Business Model Canvas

    Revenue Streams

    Costco’s generates revenue through the following mechanisms:

  • Retail sales of goods: Income from in-store and online purchases
  • Membership fees (Sam’s Club): Recurring revenue from wholesale club subscriptions
  • Financial services: Fees from money transfers, check cashing, and other offerings
  • Advertising: Revenue from in-store and online promotional placements
  • Marketplace commissions: Fees from third-party sellers on Walmart’s e-commerce platform
  • Wholesale and bulk sales: Income from large-quantity purchases by businesses
  • Cost Structure Of The Business Model Canvas

    Cost Structure

    Costco business model involves the following components:

  • Cost of goods sold: Expenses related to product acquisition and production
  • Labor and employee benefits: Costs associated with compensating and supporting workers
  • Store operations and maintenance: Expenses for running and upkeeping physical locations
  • Supply chain and logistics expenses: Costs related to transporting and storing goods
  • Marketing and advertising spend: Investments in promoting the Walmart brand and offerings
  • Technology and e-commerce investments: Costs associated with digital infrastructure and capabilities
  • Costco Business Model Patterns

    The Future of the Costco Business Model

    Costco’s business model, primarily centred on a membership-based warehouse club, has demonstrated significant resilience and robust growth over the years. However, as the retail landscape undergoes rapid digital transformation, Costco faces critical challenges that could impact its future. While the company has enjoyed steady growth, with a reported increase in net sales of 7.5% to $51.9 billion in the first quarter of fiscal year 2024, its digital strategy appears somewhat lagging behind its competitors like Amazon and Walmart. These competitors have heavily invested in online platforms and personalised digital marketing, areas where Costco has been slower to innovate. This digital shortfall presents a risk in maintaining the loyalty of a younger demographic that favours online shopping and convenience over the in-store, bulk-buying experience.

    On the other hand, Costco’s potential for international expansion presents a significant opportunity. The company has seen promising growth in markets outside the United States, such as Canada, Mexico, and parts of Asia. As of the end of 2023, international sales accounted for approximately 25% of total sales, indicating robust performance in these markets. Expanding further into emerging markets, where there is a growing middle class with spending power, could replicate the successful model employed in existing international locations. This expansion strategy not only diversifies Costco’s revenue streams but also mitigates the risks associated with the saturating North American retail market.

    Moreover, Costco’s steadfast commitment to maintaining high-quality products and competitive pricing continues to be a major draw for consumers. The company’s ability to leverage its immense buying power to negotiate better deals results in lower prices for consumers, a core aspect of its value proposition that remains unrivalled by many competitors. Additionally, the growing trend towards bulk buying, influenced by increasing consumer awareness around sustainability and the economic benefits of purchasing in larger quantities, could further bolster Costco’s position in the market. However, to truly capitalise on these opportunities and safeguard its future, Costco must enhance its digital capabilities and adapt more aggressively to the changing consumer behaviours that increasingly favour convenience and personalisation.

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