Google Business Model – A Hidden Revenue Model

The Google business model is based on a hidden business model pattern. A hidden business model is interesting because the user doesn’t pay for the service. Instead, third parties. such as businesses pay. In the case of the Google business model, businesses pay to advertise either on the search results page or on its display

Gary Fox

A Detailed Google Business Model Map

Google Business Model – A Hidden Revenue Model

The Google business model is based on a hidden business model pattern.

A hidden business model is interesting because the user doesn’t pay for the service. Instead, third parties. such as businesses pay.

In the case of the Google business model, businesses pay to advertise either on the search results page or on its display network.

This is just one of many different business model patterns that Google uses in different parts of its business. In this article, I’ll break some of the other powerful models that Google uses to drive its growth.

Advertisers use Google because of the massive volume of people that use it globally. Here are a few mind-blowing stat about the scale of Google search engine:

  1. Google is the most visited site in the world with over 80 billion searches per year – source: Similarweb.
  2. Google dominates the Search Engine Market, it has commands over 91% of all search – source: Statcounter.
  3. 81% of people search online before making a major purchase – source: CSA.

The hidden revenue model concept separates the idea of ‘revenue and customer’.

Alphabet (Google) Subsidiaries

Alphabet Inc., the parent company of Google, oversees a wide array of subsidiaries, each focusing on various sectors ranging from technology and research to health and investment. Here’s a detailed bulleted list of notable Alphabet subsidiaries:

  • Google LLC
    • The core subsidiary focused on internet-related services including search, advertising, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
  • Calico
    • A research and development company dedicated to understanding and harnessing the biological processes involved in human aging and health.
  • DeepMind Technologies
    • A cutting-edge artificial intelligence company known for its work on neural networks and deep learning applications.
  • Sidewalk Labs
    • Focuses on urban innovation, specifically aiming to develop smart city technologies to improve urban infrastructure.
  • Verily Life Sciences
    • A research organization devoted to the study of life sciences. The company is engaged in various projects aimed at understanding complex diseases through data analysis and technology.
  • Waymo
    • Specializes in autonomous driving technology and aims to make transportation safer and easier without the need for a human driver.
  • Wing
    • A project that focuses on developing drone-based delivery systems intended to increase accessibility and reduce transit times for goods.
  • Loon (closed in 2021)
    • Initially aimed to provide Internet access to rural and remote areas via high-altitude balloons. It was discontinued in 2021.
  • GV (formerly Google Ventures)
    • The venture capital arm that invests in a wide array of sectors including technology, biotechnology, healthcare, and artificial intelligence.
  • CapitalG
    • Formerly known as Google Capital, it is a growth equity investment fund focusing on larger, growth stage technology companies.
  • Jigsaw
    • An incubator that aims to tackle geopolitical issues and is focused on using technology to address international security challenges.
  • Fitbit
    • Acquired by Google, Fitbit is a consumer electronics and fitness company known for its products that help people stay more active, manage their overall health, and get more out of life.
  • Intrinsic
    • Focused on building software for industrial robots that are more adaptable and easier to train in real-world applications.
  • Dandelion
    • Initially part of the X development group, it is now an independent company focused on renewable geothermal energy systems to heat and cool homes.

Key Facts About Alphabet (Google)

Interesting Fact: Google is owned by its parent company Alphabet, which is valued at 1.3 trillion dollars.

Company name: Google (A subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.)
Ticker symbol: GOOGL(Class A) and GOOG(Class C)
Annual revenue: $305.63 billion
Profit | Net Income: $73.795 billion (2023)
Link: Google
Year founded: 1998
Founders: Larry Page, Sergey Brin
Company CEO: ‎Sundar Pichai‎
Headquarters: Mountain View, USA
Number of employees: 182,502 Full Time Employees (2023)
Type of business: Public

Useful Links for Google

Facebook 2
Tik Tok
Social Media 2
Social 2

The Google Business Model

In 2023, Google earned over 305 billion dollars, 77% of which came from advertising.

If you’re wondering about that other 23% and are curious about how does Google make money, then click on that link and you’ll get a full breakdown of its latest results.

A Detailed Google Business Model Map
A detailed Google Business Model Map

Google Business Model Patterns

These are just some of the business model patterns that Google employs.

Google Business Model Canvas

Google Business Model Canvas
Google Business Model Canvas

Google has several types of business. The Google Business Model Canvas focuses mainly on the core Google Business Model which is the hidden revenue model.

Customer Segments

Google Business Model Customer Segments
Google Business Model – Customer Segments

For its core advertising business, Google has three main groups of customers.


Google Customer Segments Advertisers

Advertisers are a mix of different types of businesses and individuals (e.g. entrepreneurs) who want to market their products or services. Some of these are global advertising giants like BBDO while others

Examples of advertisers include:

  • Amazon is the biggest advertiser in the world and a considerable amount of that is on Google ads.
  • Large advertising agencies e.g. Omnicom, Interpublic, Publicis.
  • Small and Media sized business.
  • Ad, web and other marketing agencies.
  • Search Marketing agencies.
  • Small businesses.


Google Customer Segments Publishers

Publishers normally have valuable content that they have created and need a way to monetize it. As an example, many bloggers who have built up organic traffic over time can use Adsense to place banners on their site.

The space they allocate to banners is then used by Google for display ads that match the interests of the audience.

Publishers include:

  • Bloggers
  • Online news sites
  • Magazine sites


Users are everybody that searches on Google – the billions of people that search for everything from cars to holidays and more.

Without users, Google wouldn’t be able to have advertisers. That’s why Google has to continually invest in the quality of the search results and user experience.


Google Channels

Google uses its own channels to promote its services. With 91% of search engine market Google itself is the channel.

The Google business model uses its other services to reinforce its advertising ecosystem. As an example, an increasing trend is a move to voice search through smart speakers such as Google Home.

  • Google GSuite (including Gmail)
  • Chrome
  • Google Maps
  • Google Analytics
  • Google Adwords
  • Google Developer
  • Google Cloud
  • Android Devices
  • Google Home

Customer Relationships

Google Customer Relationships

Google is principally a self-service operation. However, if you are an advertiser they are more proactive and often you will have an account manager call you to guide you in the initial stages of setting up your AdWords campaigns. This is often referred to as onboarding new customers.

Much larger enterprise and corporate accounts have dedicated account managers or whole teams in place depending on the size of their budget.

Value Proposition

Google Value Propositions

Google has three main value propositions that fit to their customer segments:

1. Users

The main value proposition for users is the free use of the Google Search Engine.

2. Advertisers

Advertisers can target customers online with a high degree of accuracy based on keywords. Additionally, filters allow advertisers to refine their targeting.

When comparing Facebook ads vs Google ads, one of the key points of difference is that online searches often show a high degree of intent. In other words, people are searching to buy something.

3. Content Producers

The main value proposition for content producers is that they can monetize their content.

Producing content takes time and effort and is costly on a commercial basis e.g. newspapers have salaries to pay, infrastructure.

Many newspapers that survived the shift to digital now rely on Adsense and advertising more generally for their revenue.

However, even influencers and bloggers use Adsense to make money, but to make any significant amount of money you need a lot of traffic.

The Google ads business model is the key driver for the huge income Google generates.

Key Partners

Google Key Partners

Google relies on a lot of hardware, not just software to power its global infrastructure. Many manufacturers are involved in producing servers and other network hardware for its gigantic data centres.

Other partners include:

  • Content generators – bloggers, online magazines…
  • Shareholders – investors in Google.
  • Alphabet (owner) – the parent company of Google.
  • Distribution partners (hardware) – partners for the distribution of hardware products like Google Pixel.
  • OEM’s – manufacturers of servers and other essential infrastructure technology.
  • Electronics manufacturers – chip manufacturers such as Intel.
  • Developers – developers who create the Amazon Cloud services such as Google Maps.

Key Activities

Google Key Activites

Google is technology company that focuses on advertising but also has its eye on the next wave of technology. It invests heavily in research and development to maintain its competitive position as well as invest in future bets.

Other key activities of the Google business model:

  • Big data – managing and using the massive amount of data from billions of searches.
  • AI/Algorithms – AI to optimise the delivery of search results.
  • Search technology – the technology that delivers the rapid response to any search query.
  • Cloud computing – the global infrastructure.
  • Software – the many different services developers can use.
  • Hardware – hardware such as Google Pixel, Google Home, Fitbit…
  • Sales and marketing – to promote Google products and services.
  • Innovation – coming up with new ideas and solving problems.
  • Advertising – advertising online.

Key Resources

Google Key Resources

Google is a technology giant and therefore patents and general intellectual properties are an essential part of its resources.

Surprisingly Google is lacking behind other tech giants when it comes to patents in 2023

Google Business Model And Number Of Patents 2023
Companies with the most United States patents granted to them in 2023 (Source: Statista)

Other key resources for the Google business model include:

  • Search algorithm – the Google search algorithm
  • Googlebot – the Googlebot that checks sites and indexes their content.
  • Global infrastructure – the global technology infrastructure.
  • Innovation culture – the culture and way of being Google.
  • IP/Patents – its patents and intellectual property.
  • Platform expertise – expertise in technology.
  • Android OS – the operating system for mobiles.

Cost Structure

  • Research and development investment
  • Software development
  • Traffic acquisition costs (TAC)
  • General administration
  • Data centres
  • Legal
  • Operations

Revenue Streams

The Google revenue model is primarily driven by online advertising – display network, pay per click and cost per impressions.

Google Innovation Strategy

Here are a few notes on how the Google business model differs across its portfolio.

Google Cloud

Google Cloud Business Model

Google Cloud is a subscription business model. Companies pay based on the amount of resources they use e.g. the number of processes, bandwidth and other services. While Google Cloud isn’t as large as the Amazon Business model of AWS, it is rapidly growing and is used by a significant number of major corporates.

YouTube Business Model

With YouTube content creators have a platform to display their videos and viewers have a seemingly limitless supply of entertainment.

A perfect two-sided platform. But the revenue came from advertising. Even before being purchased by Google, YouTube declared it was making 15 million dollars per month. Fast-forward and in 2019 YouTube advertising amounted to over $46 billion – that’s $3.8 billion. month

Google’s Top Acquisitions

Image 3
Google Acquisition Timeline – Source: CB Insights
  • Motorola Mobility ($12.5B, 2012) is Google’s largest acquisition to date. In October 2014, Motorola was sold to Lenovo for less than a quarter of its acquisition price (approximately $2.9B).
  • Nest Labs ($3.2B, 2014) was Google’s entry into the smart home space. Google acquired the connected home developer to increase its household footprint, while also providing expansion opportunities for its Android ecosystem.
  • DoubleClick ($3.1B, 2007), an ad serving company was purchased to complement Google’s existing ad business. The deal has been instrumental in giving Google a foothold in the lucrative display advertising industry, allowing the company to facilitate programmatic ad-buying through its own ad exchange.
  • Looker ($2.6B, 2019) is a California-based business intelligence platform whose recent acquisition further signals Google’s current focus on growing its cloud offerings.
  • Fitbit ($2.1B, 2019), a global leader in consumer health wearables, is the most recent of Google’s top 10 acquisitions. In 2018, Fitbit sold 14M devices and had nearly 30M active users worldwide. Google expects the acquisition to strengthen its Wear OS efforts as it attempts to catch up with Apple.
  • YouTube ($1.7B, 2006), a leading video-sharing platform, was Google’s first $1B+ acquisition. Through this purchase, Google anticipated the shift from traditional media like TV to online viewing, while also increasing its traffic and growing its ad business.
  • Waze ($1.15B, 2013), an Israel-based mapping service startup, brought social traffic data that helped Google improve Google Maps functions such as accurately predicting travel time and suggesting navigation routes.
  • HTC – Pixel Smartphone Division ($1.1B, 2017) is a Taiwan-based consumer electronics manufacturer. While the acquisition did not include any production facilities, it left Google with a significant part of HTC’s smartphone team (underlining the Android maker’s focus on competing with iPhone maker Apple) and helped Google establish a manufacturing presence in Taiwan.
  • AdMob ($750M, 2009), a mobile advertising company founded in 2006, was purchased by Google in anticipation of the massive proliferation of mobile ads.
  • TA Software ($700M, 2011), a US-based airline IT and services provider, was acquired by Google to expand the tech giant’s search capabilities and to power Google Flight Search.
  • Looker Data Sciences (2020) – Google acquired Looker, a business intelligence software and big data analytics platform, to expand its Google Cloud offerings and enhance its data management and analytics capabilities.
  • North (2020) – A tech company specializing in augmented reality (AR) smart glasses, North was acquired to potentially integrate its technologies into Google’s hardware products.
  • Pointy (2020) – Pointy, an Irish startup, was acquired to help brick and mortar retailers list their inventory online, enhancing Google’s local commerce and advertising capabilities.
  • Actifio (2020) – A data management company that specializes in data backup and disaster recovery, Actifio was acquired to improve Google Cloud’s business continuity solutions.
  • Mandiant (2022) – A cybersecurity firm known for its incident response and threat intelligence services. This acquisition aimed to bolster the security foundations of Google Cloud.
  • Siemplify (2022) – A security orchestration, automation, and response (SOAR) provider, acquired to enhance Google Cloud’s security operations suite.
  • Raxium (2022) – An innovative microLED technology company focused on developing display technologies for augmented and virtual reality applications.
  • Dysonics (2021) – A startup focused on audio technology, specifically 3D audio, which was acquired to enhance spatial audio capabilities in Google’s hardware products.
  • Focals by North (2020) – This acquisition (distinct from the overall purchase of North) was specifically geared towards enhancing Google’s efforts in developing its own AR glasses.

Key Points For the Google Business Model

  • Google has spent nearly $29B on its top 10 acquisitions.
  • These top deals reflect Google’s strategy evolution, from adtech (AdMob, DoubleClick) in the late 2000s to mobile (Motorola Mobility, Apigee) and wearables (Fitbit) in the 2010s.

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